At TEDX we have published primary research and review articles on the impacts of unconventional oil and gas operations on health and the environment. We wrote the first peer-reviewed paper questioning the public health implications and identifying potential endocrine effects of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing. Government and non-government organizations rely on our science in their efforts to protect human and ecological health.
An integrative method for identification and prioritization of constituents of concern in produced water from onshore oil and gas extraction
Danforth C, Chiu WA, Rusyn I, Schultz K, Bolden A, Kwiatkowski C, Craft E. 2019. Environment International 134:105280. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2019.105280.
In the United States, onshore oil and gas extraction operations generate an estimated 900 billion gallons of produced water annually, making it the largest waste stream associated with upstream development of petroleum hydrocarbons. Management and disposal practices of produced water vary from deep well injection to reuse of produced water in agricultural settings. However, there is relatively little information with regard to the chemical or toxicological characteristics of produced water. A comprehensive literature review was performed, screening nearly 16,000 published articles, and identifying 129 papers that included data on chemicals detected in produced water. Searches for information on the potential ecotoxicological or mammalian toxicity of these chemicals revealed that the majority (56%) of these compounds have not been a subject of safety evaluation or mechanistic toxicology studies and 86% lack data to be used to complete a risk assessment, which underscores the lack of toxicological information for the majority of chemical constituents in produced water. The objective of this study was to develop a framework to identify potential constituents of concern in produced water, based on available and predicted toxicological hazard data, to prioritize these chemicals for monitoring, treatment, and research. In order to integrate available evidence to address gaps in toxicological hazard on the chemicals in produced water, we have catalogued available information from ecological toxicity studies, toxicity screening databases, and predicted toxicity values. A Toxicological Priority Index (ToxPi) approach was applied to integrate these various data sources. This research will inform stakeholders and decision-makers on the potential hazards in produced water. In addition, this work presents a method to prioritize compounds that, based on hazard and potential exposure, may be considered during various produced water reuse strategies to reduce possible human health risks and environmental impacts.
Exploring the endocrine activity of air pollutants associated with unconventional oil and gas extraction
Bolden AL, Schultz K, Pelch KE, Kwiatkowski CF. 2018. Environmental Health 17:26. doi:10.1186/s12940-018-0368-z.
Background: In the last decade unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction has rapidly proliferated throughout the United States (US) and the world. This occurred largely because of the development of directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing which allows access to fossil fuels from geologic formations that were previously not cost effective to pursue. This process is known to use greater than 1,000 chemicals such as solvents, surfactants, detergents, and biocides. In addition, a complex mixture of chemicals, including heavy metals, naturally-occurring radioactive chemicals, and organic compounds are released from the formations and can enter air and water. Compounds associated with UOG activity have been linked to adverse reproductive and developmental outcomes in humans and laboratory animal models, which is possibly due to the presence of endocrine active chemicals.
Methods: Using systematic methods, electronic searches of PubMed and Web of Science were conducted to identify studies that measured chemicals in air near sites of UOG activity. Records were screened by title and abstract, relevant articles then underwent full text review, and data were extracted from the studies. A list of
chemicals detected near UOG sites was generated. Then, the potential endocrine activity of the most frequently detected chemicals was explored via searches of literature from PubMed.
Results: Evaluation of 48 studies that sampled air near sites of UOG activity identified 106 chemicals detected in two or more studies. Ethane, benzene and n-pentane were the top three most frequently detected. Twenty-one chemicals have been shown to have endocrine activity including estrogenic and androgenic activity and the ability to alter steroidogenesis. Literature also suggested that some of the air pollutants may affect reproduction, development, and neurophysiological function, all endpoints which can be modulated by hormones. These chemicals included aromatics (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and mercury.
Conclusion: These results provide a basis for prioritizing future primary studies regarding the endocrine disrupting properties of UOG air pollutants, including exposure research in wildlife and humans. Further, we recommend systematic reviews of the health impacts of exposure to specific chemicals, and comprehensive environmental sampling of a broader array of chemicals.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and female reproductive health: A scoping review
Bolden AL, Rochester JR, Schultz K, Kwiatkowski CF. 2017. Reprod Toxicol 73:61-74. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.07.012.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of common persistent environmental pollutants found in water, air, soil, and plants and can be released by natural sources. However, the majority of atmospheric PAHs are from vehicular emissions, coal-burning plants, and the production and use of petroleum-derived substances. Exposure to PAHs has been implicated in cancer and other diseases, including reproductive disorders. This scoping review is a preliminary step that explores the utility and feasibility of completing a systematic review evaluating the effect of PAHs on female reproduction. We performed literature searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, then screened, identified, and categorized relevant studies. Our results identified fertility and pregnancy/fetal viability as outcomes with sufficient research for systematic review. In addition to presenting the relevant studies, the review identifies data gaps, and provides the groundwork to develop the most appropriate research questions for systematic review.
Inspiring Collaboration: The Legacy of Theo Colborn’s Transdisciplinary Research on Fracking
Wylie S, Schultz K, Thomas D, Kassotis C, Nagel S. 2016. New Solut doi: 10.1177/1048291116666037.
This article describes Dr. Theo Colborn’s legacy of inspiring complementary and synergistic environmental health research and advocacy. Colborn, a founder of endocrine disruption research, also stimulated study of hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In 2014, the United States led the world in oil and gas production, with fifteen million Americans living within one mile of an oil or gas well. Colborn pioneered efforts to understand and control the impacts of this sea change in energy production. In 2005, her research organization The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX) developed a database of chemicals used in natural gas extraction and their health effects. This database stimulated novel scientific and social scientific research and informed advocacy by (1) connecting communities’ diverse health impacts to chemicals used in natural gas development, (2) inspiring social science research on open-source software and hardware for citizen science, and (3) posing new scientific questions about the endocrine-disrupting properties of fracking chemicals.
Twenty-Five Years of Endocrine Disruption Science: Remembering Theo Colborn
Kwiatkowski CF, Bolden AL, Liroff RA, Rochester JR, Vandenbergh JG. 2016. Environ Health Perspect 124:A151–A154; doi:10.1289/EHP746.
For nearly 30 years, Dr. Theo Colborn (1927–2014) dedicated herself to studying the harmful effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on wildlife, humans, and the environment. More recently, she extended this effort to address the health impacts of unconventional oil and gas development. Colborn was a visionary leader who excelled at synthesizing scientific findings across disciplines. Using her unique insights and strong moral convictions, she changed the face of toxicological research, influenced chemical regulatory policy, and educated the public. In 2003, Colborn started a nonprofit organization—The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). As we celebrate the 25th anniversary of endocrine disruption science, TEDX continues her legacy of analyzing the extensive body of environmental health research and developing unique educational resources to support public policy and education. Among other tools, TEDX currently uses the systematic review framework developed by the National Toxicology Program at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, to answer research questions of pressing concern. In this article, we pay homage to the tenacious woman and the exemplary contribution she made to the field of environmental health. Recommendations for the future of the field are drawn from her wisdom.
New Look at BTEX: Are Ambient Levels a Problem?
Bolden AL, Kwiatkowski C, Colborn T. 2015. Environmental Science and Technology doi:10.1021/es505316f.
Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) are retrieved during fossil fuel extraction and used as solvents in consumer and industrial products, as gasoline additives, and as intermediates in the synthesis of organic compounds for many consumer products. Emissions from the combustion of gasoline and diesel fuels are the largest contributors to atmospheric BTEX concentrations. However, levels indoors (where people spend greater than 83% of their time) can be many times greater than outdoors. In this review we identified epidemiological studies assessing the noncancer health impacts of ambient level BTEX exposure (i.e., nonoccupational) and discussed how the health conditions may be hormonally mediated. Health effects significantly associated with ambient level exposure included sperm abnormalities, reduced fetal growth, cardiovascular disease, respiratory dysfunction, asthma, sensitization to common antigens, and more. Several hormones including estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, insulin, and serotonin may be involved in these health outcomes. This analysis suggests that all four chemicals may have endocrine disrupting properties at exposure levels below reference concentrations (i.e., safe levels) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These data should be considered when evaluating the use of BTEX in consumer and industrial products and indicates a need to change how chemicals present at low concentrations are assessed and regulated.
An Exploratory Study of Air Quality Near Natural Gas Operations
Colborn T, Schultz K, Herrick L, and Kwiatkowski C. 2014. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 20(1):86-105; doi:10.1080/10807039.2012.749447.
This exploratory study was designed to assess air quality in a rural western Colorado area where residences and gas wells co-exist. Sampling was conducted before, during, and after drilling and hydraulic fracturing of a new natural gas well pad. Weekly air sampling for 1 year revealed that the number of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their concentrations were highest during the initial drilling phase and did not increase during hydraulic fracturing in this closed-loop system. Methylene chloride, a toxic solvent not reported in products used in drilling or hydraulic fracturing, was detected 73% of the time; several times in high concentrations. A literature search of the health effects of the NMHCs revealed that many had multiple health effects, including 30 that affect the endocrine system, which is susceptible to chemical impacts at very low concentrations, far less than government safety standards. Selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were at concentrations greater than those at which prenatally exposed children in urban studies had lower developmental and IQ scores. The human and environmental health impacts of the NMHCs, which are ozone precursors, should be examined further given that the natural gas industry is now operating in close proximity to human residences and public lands.
Natural Gas Operations from a Public Health Perspective
Colborn T, Kwiatkowski C, Schultz K, Bachran M. 2011. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 17(5):1039-1056; doi:10.1080/10807039.2011.605662.
The technology to recover natural gas depends on undisclosed types and amounts of toxic chemicals. A list of 944 products containing 632 chemicals used during natural gas operations was compiled. Literature searches were conducted to determine potential health effects of the 353 chemicals identified by Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers. More than 75% of the chemicals could affect the skin, eyes, and other sensory organs, and the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Approximately 40–50% could affect the brain/nervous system, immune and cardiovascular systems, and the kidneys; 37% could affect the endocrine system; and 25% could cause cancer and mutations. These results indicate that many chemicals used during the fracturing and drilling stages of gas operations may have long-term health effects that are not immediately expressed. In addition, an example was provided of waste evaporation pit residuals that contained numerous chemicals on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) lists of hazardous substances. The discussion highlights the difficulty of developing effective water quality monitoring programs. To protect public health we recommend full disclosure of the contents of all products, extensive air and water monitoring, coordinated environmental/human health studies, and regulation of fracturing under the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act.